Glossary of terms

Accessibility - The degree to which the numbers of people have access to a location, facility, program, open space, and cycle and walk networks.

Activity centre - Activity centres are community focal points. They include activities such as commercial, retail, higher density housing, entertainment, tourism, civic/community, higher education, and medical services. Activity centres vary in size and diversity and are designed to be well-serviced by public transport. The following activity centres are defined by the State government; Perth Capital City, strategic metropolitan centres, secondary centres, specialised centres, district centres, neighbourhood centres. Source: State Planning Policy 4.2 – Activity Centres Policy for Perth and Peel.

Activity centre structure plan - An activity centre structure plan is a statutory document required in accordance with the Western Australian Planning Commission’s State Planning Policy 4.2 – Activity Centres for Perth and Peel for strategic metropolitan centres, secondary centres, district and specialised centres, but not for neighbourhood or local centres (refer State Planning Policy 4.2 — Table 2: Activity Centre Hierarchy). It can be prepared by local government, a landowner, landowner’s representative or a government agency.

Active frontage - Building frontage which contains uses that promote activity on the street.

Active living - Is defined as a way of life that integrates physical activity into daily routines.

Active transport - Is walking, cycling or using public transport. Active transport is an alternative to car travel and can provide benefits, such as increasing daily physical activity and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Ancillary benefits can also include an increase in the sense of community and improved mental health. Terms often used interchangeably to refer to walking for transport.

Activity generators - Features and land uses that attract people, activity and surveillance opportunities, such as picnic areas, cafes, recreation facilities and public seating areas.

Active public open space - typically provides for more formal recreational pursuits and organised sporting activities (e.g., ovals, soccer pitches).  Active spaces within parks may also be hard non-green spaces, such as basketball and tennis courts which are important facilities for physical activity and exercise.

Affordable housing - Defined by Western Australian Planning Commission as “That which is accessible to low income households (the bottom 40% of income distribution) without spending more than 30% of the gross household income on housing costs.”

Barrier - An obstacle that prevents someone from accessing a service, facility or program and can include physical barriers (such as a high volume high speed road) as well as attitudinal, social and geographical.

Body mass / size - A measurement often used to indicate weight and obesity.

Built environment - Means the structures and places including buildings, streets, and other man-made structures, in which we live, work and play, including land uses, transportation systems and design features.

Cardiovascular disease - Cardiovascular diseases are still Australia’s biggest killer. The term CVD covers all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and rheumatic heart disease are prominent types of CVD in Australia (AIHW), Australia’s Health 20120.

Centre (town centre) - A collection of destinations.  A town centre acts as a community focal point or hub, with a concentration of destinations and mixed land uses that attract people to a variety of activities and public transport.

Co-location - The placement of several destinations or land uses in a single location or area.

Community gardens - Collaborative projects on shared open spaces where participants share in the maintenance and products of the garden, including healthful and affordable fresh fruits and vegetables.

Community infrastructure - Means the structures and facilities that make up a neighbourhood.

Community purpose site - Means an area of land more than 2,000m2 to accommodate community land uses such as community centres, meeting halls, libraries and kindergartens. Community purpose sites may form part of the public open space contribution.

Compact developments - Uses less land than traditional developments.

Conducive environments - Physical characteristics that support and enable physical activity e.g. environments conducive to walking or cycling etc.

Connected communities - Neighbourhoods with good street networks providing direct routes between homes and destinations.

Connectivity - Is the degree to which networks, such as streets, railways, walking and cycling routes, services and infrastructure, interconnect. A highly-connected place will have many public spaces or routes linked to it.

Crime Prevention Through Design (CPTED) - Is a multi-disciplinary approach to deterring criminal behaviour through environmental and urban design decisions. CPTED strategies rely upon the ability to influence offender decisions that precede criminal acts and deter criminal acts. Crime prevention through environmental design recognises that it has to be part of a holistic approach to crime prevention including community, social and environmental strategies.

Curvilinear - Curvilinear coordinates are a coordinate system for Euclidean space in which the coordinate lines may be curved.

Daily living needs - The day-to-day requirements and convenience goods of the individuals in the local community such as purchasing milk, bread and newspaper are provided within the neighbourhood and within walking distance of their dwelling.

Density - Is the measure of the number of dwellings in a given land area. It can also be a measure of population in a given land area.

Destinations - The specific types of businesses present (e.g., a supermarket, hotel, cinema, schools, offices, public open space or bank). 

Design guidelines - A set of planning provisions intended to guide development toward a desired level of quality through the design of the physical environment. 

District open space (DOS) - Is principally designed to provide for organised formal sport. DOS will very likely include substantial recreation space and some nature space. DOS design and function should consider biodiversity principles and environmental management goals. DOS serves several neighbourhoods with players and visitors travelling from surrounding districts.

District structure plan - A district structure plan is a high-level, predominantly strategic, document that provides guidance on future land use, employment, density targets and the coordination and provision of major infrastructure. This may include the location of high schools, district water management requirements, movement networks, refinement of regional land use boundaries, coordination of regional and district infrastructure provision, location and distribution of regional or district open space, land use buffers, environmental assets and activity centres as per Western Australian Planning Commission’s State Planning Policy 4.2.

Dwelling - A building or portion of a building being used, adapted, or designed or intended to be used for the purpose of human habitation on a permanent basis.

Fast food - Takeaway food outlets and fast food restaurants engaged in the preparation and sale of meals and light refreshments that are ready for immediate consumption where

  • Table Service is not provided.
  • The meal can be eaten on site, taken away or delivered.
  • The food is prepared and sold from a standard menu.
  • Payment is required before the food is consumed.       

Food access (demand) - Is the ability of consumers to acquire food which is safe, affordable, competitively priced, culturally acceptable and nutritious by using physical or financial resources. Access depends on an individual’s financial resources and total household expenditure, physical mobility and the distance and availability of transport to food stores, as well as food preferences.

Food availability (supply) - Is the physical presence of sufficient choice and quantity of nutritious foods to meet consumer needs at competitive prices. Adequacy of food supply is determined by factors such as the location and accessibility of retailers and outlets, the availability of food within outlets, as well as the price, quality, variety and promotion of food. This is influenced by industry cost structures, store management, distribution technology, the level of competition and consumer demand.

Food security - Is a multidimensional concept. The Rome Declaration definition of food security has been formally endorsed at a global level.“Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” The food security of any group of people is an outcome of food systems. This connection between food security and food systems is reflected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) who describe four main dimensions of food security. Physical availability of food, Economic and physical access to food, Food utilisation, Stability of the other three dimensions. The focus of programs to address food insecurity is often placed on strategies that address only one of these concepts.

Fresh and healthy food stores - A fresh and healthy food store provides a large proportion of its retail offered as food and drinks from the core food groups recommended in the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. If selling foods ready for consumption, these items are made using ingredients recommended in the Australian Dietary Guidelines and using healthy cooking methods. Including: butcher, fresh juice bar, fruit and vegetable shop, health food store, market, sandwich bar, supermarket, sushi bar and bakery.

Grouped dwelling - A dwelling that is one of a group of two or more dwellings on the same lot such that no dwelling is placed wholly or partly vertically above another, except where special conditions of landscape or topography dictate otherwise, and includes a dwelling on a survey strata with common property. 

Health - Is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Healthy communities - Are communities where people come together to make their community better for everyone through collaboration, community ownership, inclusive approaches and long-term, positive commitment. A healthy community will; provide affordable, appropriate, accessible housing, adjust the physical environment for inclusiveness and accessibility, ensure access to key health and supportive services, ensure accessible, affordable, reliable and safe transport, provide work, volunteer and education opportunities, and encourage participation in civic, cultural, social and recreational activities.

Healthy fresh food - Definitions of the term “healthy foods” vary depending on the source and context, but in a general way is used to suggest foods that provide essential nutrients and support health. Healthy foods are usually fresh or minimally processed foods, naturally dense in nutrients, that when eaten in moderation and in combination with other foods, sustain growth, repair and maintain vital processes, promote longevity, reduce disease, and strengthen and maintain the body and its functions.  Source: http://depts.washington.edu/waaction/plan/append/g.html HAbD refers to provision of grocery stores.

Incidental activity - Includes active play and recreation, for example walking the dog, swimming, walking and cycling for recreation, movement within a building to access services, walking for public transport. 

Integrator arterials or arterial roads - Means a route that has frequent connections to local streets and development frontages along its length. The higher order integrator arterial route typically has service roads with on-street parking for mixed-use developments. Direct vehicle access is limited where there are no service roads. For lower order integrator arterial roads, one clear lane for each direction with on-street parking is common. Indicative traffic capacity is between 20,000 to 35,000 vehicles per day.

Land use - Land that has been zoned for specific purposes, these include residential, retail, commercial, civic, open space, or mixed-use within a town planning scheme.  

Land-use mix (mixed land uses) - Is the diversity or variety of land uses (e.g. residential, retail, commercial, industrial and agricultural, parks and open space). A diverse land use mix is associated with shorter travel distances between places of interest and activities. The term “land use mix” is often used throughout the public health literature to describe the diversity (i.e., mix) of different land uses or destinations over a given area, (i.e., within the neighbourhood). Measures of “land use mix” are often computed in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and include simple counts of different destination types or land uses present, as well as more sophisticated methods such as entropy formulas that measure the variety and distribution of land uses over a given area

Legibility - Is where the design of the street system provides a sense of direction and connection, giving clear signals regarding the spatial layout and geography of an area.

Local open space (LOS) - Is usually small parklands that service the recreation needs of the immediate residential population.LOS is primarily used for recreation and may include small areas of nature space.LOS is unlikely to be used for any formal or informal sport.

Local structure plan - A local structure plan is a statutory document prepared by local government, a landowner, landowner representative and approved under the provisions of a local planning scheme. Local structure plans coordinate the provision and planning for land use development, infrastructure and facilities on the neighbourhood scale (generally two suburbs or less, three neighbourhoods or less, one primary school catchment) and provide a statutory planning framework to facilitate future subdivision and development. The local structure plan also identifies all land uses (as provided under the local planning scheme), R-Codes, land use buffers, environmental assets and the neighbourhood street network. It may, if it does not conflict with the local planning scheme, impose a classification on the land included in it by reference to reserves, zones or the R-Codes. 

Local vernacular - A building style using local materials and traditional methods of construction and ornament, especially as distinguished from academic or historical architectural styles not from the region

Main street formats - A main street is typically a short street some 200-400m long  where pedestrian-scaled, street-fronting mixed-use buildings with small setbacks and ‘active’ ground floor uses extend onto the street (i.e., café seating areas, external shop displays) encourage walking and cycling access.  Typically characteristics of a main street are:

  • High pedestrian amenity by providing suitable lighting.
  • Support a slow movement network with appropriate traffic management to slow through traffic. 
  • Positively contribute to a positive local sense of place.
  • Retail layouts should predominate, instead of enclosed or parking lots dominant retail formats. 
  • Wide pavements approximately 4m or greater. 
  • Street trees or shop awnings to provide protection to pedestrians all year round. 
  • Mixed active land uses fronting the main street.
  • Development to be at a human scale at active frontage.
  • Opportunity for higher density residential development or commercial land use above ground floor development. 
  • Active ground floor frontage (shops or businesses where there is a high level of foot traffic) to have nil setbacks.
  • Opportunity for alfresco dinning within pavement reserve.
  • Public transport such as light rail, rail or high frequency bus routes to service the main street.
  • Road reserve approximately 25m wide, two lanes of traffic and small median strip with on street parking.
  • Vehicles movements at 40-50km/hr and 15,000 vehicles per day.
  • Low speed differential between vehicles and cyclists.

Master plan

  • A document that sets out how a particular area can (as opposed to will) develop and redevelop into the future
  • A high level plan intended to set out objectives and strategies to manage development and change over time
  • A process that defines what is important about a place and how its character and quality can be conserved, improved and enhanced
  • It isn’t a detailed design

Source: http://www.actpla.act.gov.au/tools_resources/legislation_plans_registers/plans/master_plans Australian Capital Territory Government Environment and Sustainable Development 

Mixed density - Refers to residential development that contains a range of housing types, such as single dwellings, medium-density dwellings and higher-density dwelling units, including apartment buildings, and usually includes a variety of building forms.

Mixed-use - The existence of a variety of different land uses (or destinations) within a project area, precinct, locality or site.

Mixed-use development - Buildings that contain commercial and other non-residential uses in conjunction with residential dwellings in a multiple dwelling configuration. 

Moderate-intensity exercise - Exercise that increases heart rate and breathing rate.

Monitoring - Regular data collection activities that collect an in-depth snapshot of behaviours (e.g. physical activity, sedentary behaviour) or measures (e.g. body size, daily steps) in a population.

Multiple dwelling - A dwelling in a group of more than one dwelling on a lot where any part of a dwelling is wholly or predominately vertically above part or any other but: does not include a grouped dwelling and includes any dwellings above the ground floor in a mixed-use development.

Neighbourhood - (Discussed in ‘Schools’ evidence section) A neighbourhood is typically defined by a five minute walk (or 400m) from the neighbourhood centre to its perimeter.  The centre will have a community focus with a comparable mix of uses, including retail which provide for daily need, centre to be located at intersection of relatively busy local streets and served by public transport, characterised by a range of residential densities and variety of housing types that increased toward the neighbourhood centre. Schools are located between neighbourhoods so that walking access to the centre is not compromised, often a school is shared between two or three neighbourhoods, a secondary state school will service some 6,500 to 7,000 lot and primary school some 1,200 to 1,500 lots.

Natural environment - Environments created by nature. 

Nature Spaces - Provide a setting where people can enjoy nearby nature and protect local biodiversity and natural area values. Nature spaces provide opportunity for low-impact recreational activities, such as walking, cycling, picnicking, playing, watching or exploring natural features. Nature spaces may include bushland, coastal areas, wetlands and riparian habitats, and geological and natural features. Sites are managed to enable recreational access while protecting local ecological and biodiversity values.

Neighbourhood aesthetics - Neighbourhood aesthetics determine the general appeal and presentation of the neighbourhood and whether it provides a pleasant pedestrian-orientated environment Design features that contribute towards the physical qualities and aesthetics of the street environment and that are relevant to walking include: the surface type and condition of footpaths; curb heights; the provision of street furniture, lighting and trees; vegetation; building setbacks; as well as the attractiveness of the area, and its maintenance.

Neighbourhood open space (NOS) - Serves as the recreational and social focus of a community. Residents are attracted by the variety of features and facilities and opportunities to socialise. NOS can assist to engender sense of place and protect specific conservation values through retention of nature spaces. NOS may be used for junior sport or sports training if appropriate space is available.

neighbourhoods to function effectively, including: sporting and recreational facilities, community centres, child care and after school, centres, libraries and cultural facilities; and such other services and facilities for which development contributions may reasonably be requested.

Non-communicable diseases - A non-infectious chronic health condition, usually developing over a significant period of time, that can cause death, dysfunction or impaired quality of life.

Organised sport and recreation - Involves participation in fixtured sporting events or activities which require the supervision or expertise of an instructor e.g. aerobics etc.

Passive building design - Building design and layout which take advantage of a natural, renewable resource (like sunlight, cooling breezes, etc). 

Passive public open space - Passive public open spaces often refer to areas with features such as lawns, trees, landscaped gardens and shrubbery, lakes, fountains, picnic areas, seating and/or walking trails that promote less active or lighter physical activities, or as places for gathering and socialising.

Public open space hierarchy - The Liveable Neighbourhoods Guidelines encourages the planning of 3 types of public parkland as defined below: 

  • Local Parks: up to 0.3ha in size; these may be provided for local children’s play and as resting places, designed as small intimate spaces and in a safe walking distance from all dwellings; local parks should be provided in 150 to 300 metres to all dwellings;
  • Neighbourhood Parks: of around 0.3-0.5ha or larger must be provided, each serving about 600 dwellings; these should be a maximum 400m walk from most dwellings; 
  • District Parks: of around 2.5-7 ha must be provided, each notionally serving three neighbourhoods, and should be between a 600m and 1km walk from most dwellings;  they must be provided with sufficient land area and dimensions to incorporate grassed areas for informal games, organised sport, hard surfaces for games such as netball and basketball, and natural and human-made differences in elevation (which may also perform a drainage function); schools may also be located in conjunction with district parks, enabling joint use and maintenance of open space such as playing fields.
  • Regional open spaces (defined as >7ha) are identified in LN but they are not expected to be included within the developers 10% contribution (i.e., these needs should be addressed within regional planning schemes).

The Department of Sport and Recreation open space classification framework is based on two central categories: 1) function and 2) catchment hierarchy.  The function of the space refers to its primary use and expected activities, of which three primary types of open spaces are identified: recreation spaces (provide a setting for informal play and physical activity, relaxation and social interaction); sport spaces (provide a setting for formal structured sporting activities) and nature spaces (provide a setting where people can enjoy nearby nature and protect local biodiversity and natural area values). 

The catchment hierarchy refers to the typical size and how far a user might travel to visit the site.  This includes four categories: 

  • Local open space: 0.4 ha to 1ha within a 400m or 5 minute walk.  Usually small parklands that service the recreation needs of the immediate residential population. Primarily used for recreation and may include small areas of nature space. Unlikely to be used for any formal or informal sport.  
  • Neighbourhood open space: 1ha to 5ha within 800m or 10 minute walk.  Serves as the recreational and social focus of a community. Residents are attracted by the variety of features and facilities and opportunities to socialise. May be used for junior sport or sports training if appropriate space is available.  
  • District open space: 5ha to 15+ha within 2km or 5 minute drive.  Principally designed to provide for organised formal sport. Likely includes substantial recreation space and some nature space.  Serves several neighbourhoods with players and visitors travelling from surrounding districts. 
  • Regional open space: may provide substantial facilities for organised sport, play, social interaction, relaxation and enjoyment of nature. Can assist to protect biodiversity conservation and environmental values through retention of bushland, wetlands and other natural features.

Public Plaza - A public place, square, marketplace, or similar open space in a built-up area.

Pedestrian mall - Is an area of a city or town reserved for pedestrian use only.

Ped shed - Is a measure of the walkable catchment area of a specific destination.  Operationally, it is defined as the ratio of the actual area within a five- to ten-minute walking distance (i.e. 400m service area along street network) to the theoretical area within a five- to ten-minute walking distance (i.e. 400m Euclidean / as the crow-flies distance buffer) from a given point or destination. [28]  Higher ratios indicate better levels of walkability and access.  The Western Australian Liveable Neighbourhoods Guidelines indicates that a good target is to have 60% of the area within a 400m walking distance of a mixed-use neighbourhood centre.

Permeability - Neighbourhood permeability should be provided by using street block lengths of not more than 240m, and predominately around 15-180 m in length. Street blocks should generally be shorter closer to the town and neighbourhoods centres. The choice of movement should be maximised, with streets and footpaths designed to assist in safe movements.

Physical activity - Any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure.

Physical education - The teaching of skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities, maintain fitness and make decisions about engaging in physical activity as part of a healthy active lifestyle.

Place manager - (Discussed in ‘centres’ evidence section) A key ingredient of place management is the use of a ‘place manager’ to coordinate activity and to act as a point of responsibility and accountability for the outcomes in the centre. A place manager’s role includes both place coordination and entrepreneurship. This roles includes broad based activities from defining outcomes for a particular place, brokerage and facilitation with a big picture focus, budget control and allocation, management of services delivered to a place to holistic planning for a place. Place managers need to do ‘whatever needs to be done’ from identifying causes and solutions, finding champions, empowering them, to forming coalitions and encouraging others to take action. They are expected to work with staff across the Council as well as other agencies and industry to ensure a coordinated holistic approach to urban development, management and implementation. While the purpose of place management is relatively stable, there is large variation in what place managers do and how they achieve outcomes. Place managers are sourced from a number of disciplines including “social entrepreneurship, management, marketing, economic development, retailing, education, crime and security, planning and design, tourism and leisure”.  However, it has been argued that the need for urban planning skills is not considered essential in fulfilling these roles. Although, local knowledge and acceptance in the community will aid quick synthesis of issues, their application and ability to build rapport with key stakeholders. Source Melbourne 2030 Activity Centres and the Role of Place Management.

Prevalence - Number or proportion of individuals in a community with a given condition and is usually expressed as a percentage.

Public open space - Is a social space such as a park or town square that refers to land reserved for the purpose of structured and unstructured sport, recreation and social activities.

Public realm - Areas of common use, in local authority ownership, such as parks, playgrounds and streets.

Quality of life - Ability to enjoy normal life activities.

Recreation - An activity of leisure for free time often done for enjoyment and can be considered healthy, fun and social.

Recreation spaces - Provides a setting for informal play and physical activity, relaxation and social interaction Recreation spaces enhance physical and mental health through activity that provides relaxation, amusement or stimulation. Recreation spaces can be accessed by all to play, socialise, exercise, celebrate or participate in other activities that provide personal satisfaction or intrinsic reward.  Recreation spaces include gardens and open parklands, community gardens, corridor links, amenity spaces, community use facilities, civic commons or squares.

Regional open space (ROS) - May accommodate important recreation and organised sport spaces as well as significant conservation and/or environmental features. ROS may provide substantial facilities for organised sport, play, social interaction, relaxation and enjoyment of nature. ROS can assist to protect biodiversity conservation and environmental values through retention of bushland, wetlands and other natural features.

Residential building - A building or portion of a building, together with rooms and outbuildings separate from such building but incidental thereto; such building being used or intended, adapted or designed to be used for the [purpose of human habitation; temporarily by two or more persons; or permanently by seven to more persons who do not compromise a single family but does not include a hospital or sanatorium, a prison, a hotel,  a motel or a residential school.

Risk factor - Something can increase a person’s chances of developing a disease.

Sedentary behaviour - Is a term used to describe time spent doing physically inactive tasks that do not require a lot of energy. Despite the common perception that sitting down and being inactive ‘does no harm’, there is increasing evidence that certain activities, and in particular lengths of inactive time, are in fact harmful.

Sedentary behaviour refers to any waking activity characterized by energy expenditure ≤ 1.5 metabolic equivalents and a sitting or reclining posture.  In general this means that any time a person is sitting or lying down, they are engaging in sedentary behaviour.  Common sedentary behaviours include TV viewing, video game playing, computer use (collective termed “screen time”), driving automobiles, and reading.

 This definition of sedentary behaviour has been published in the journals Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 

http://www.sedentarybehaviour.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Letter-APNM-2012.pdf

Sedentary lifestyle - Little or no physical activity incorporated into everyday life.

Sense of community - A feeling that members have of belonging and being important to each other and a shared faith that members’ needs will be met by the commitment to be together”.

Serviced apartment - A residential dwelling that forms part of a complex where common maintenance or other serviced are provided. 

Site responsive - A design for a building that takes the location, natural landscape and climate into consideration when designing the optimal design

Single bedroom dwelling - A dwelling that contains a living room and no more than one other habitable room that is capable of use as a bedroom. 

Single house - A dwelling standing wholly on its own green title or survey title lot, together with any easement over adjoining land for support of a wall or for access or services and excludes dwellings on titles with areas held in common property.

Social capital - The social networks and interactions that inspire trust and reciprocity among citizens.

Social cohesion (also referred to as sense of belonging) - Refers to the degree to which people in a community feel connected and committed to and part of a community.

Social inclusion - Refers to a society where all people are given the opportunity to participate fully in political, cultural, civic and economic life because they feel valued, their differences are respected and their basic needs are met so they can live in dignity.

Sport spaces - Provide a setting for formal structured activities Sport spaces provide a venue for formal structured sporting activities such as team competitions, physical skill development and training. Sport spaces are designed to accommodate playing surface, buffer zones and infrastructure requirements of specific or general sporting activity.  Players and spectators attend with the express purpose of engaging in organised sporting activity, training or competition or watching the game.  Most sport spaces can be accessed by community members for informal sport and recreation.

Strength / resistance training - Any physical activity or exercise that uses the force of a muscle against some form of resistance to build muscle strength, endurance, and size.

Surveillance - Ongoing data collection to provide trend data and document changes over time.

Transport system (also referred to as movement network) - Is the physical infrastructure of roads, footpaths, bike paths and railway lines that provide the physical connection between places. Travel time, comfort and safety are factors that determine the quality of transport systems. It is also used as a term to describe the level of service provided (e.g. accessibility to public transport, routes, frequencies and connectivity).

Urban design - A design based approach to shaping urban environments and optimising the performance and efficiency of neighbourhoods, towns and cities, paying particular attention to the way urban spaces work, interface between public and private realms and natural environment, cultural values, integrated movement systems and built form.

Urbanisation / sprawl - The spread of urban areas outwards of a city into its outskirts and into rural lands.

Utilisation - Refers to how people use food once they have accessed it. Utilisation includes food preparation, cooking and storage facilities, and incorporates issues of food safety. It depends on food preferences, which are influenced by eating habits and socio-cultural factors, as well as nutritional knowledge and the impact of time availability on an individual’s ability to prepare healthy food.

Vigorous intensity - Exercise that substantially increases heart rate and breathing,  and is likely to cause sweating.

Visibility - The ability of users of a space to see and be seen, ensuring surveillance by the maximum number of people.

Walkability - Is the measure of the overall walking conditions in an area. A place is walkable when it has characteristics that invite people to walk.

Walkability / bikeability - A guide to how friendly an area is to walk or cycle e.g. quality of paths, safety etc.

Walkable catchment - See walkability index. Means the actual area served in a 400m (five – minute) or 800m (10 minute) walking distance along the street system from a public transport stop, town or neighbourhood centre

Walkability index - Used to account for the presence of multiple built environmental features within a specified area (e.g., the neighbourhood), by combining scores for variables that represent connectivity, density and land use mix

Walking for recreation - Walking for recreation is a discretionary behaviour undertaken during leisure time and involves some degree of choice (Saelens, Sallis & Frank 2003).

Walking for transport (or active transport) - Is a utilitarian behaviour concerned with walking to get to and from destinations such as shops, public transport stops and places of work.  Walking for transport is not only good for health, but has additional benefits associated with reduced car use, greenhouse gas emissions, noise pollution, and improved air quality (Frumkin, Frank & Jackson 2004).  

Xeriscaping principles - Xeriscape, or water-wise landscaping, uses low-water-use plants to create a landscape that’s sustainable in Colorado’s semi-arid climate. Denver Water coined the word in 1981 to help make low-water-use landscaping an easily recognized concept. Xeriscape is a combination of the word "landscape" and the Greek word "xeros," which means dry. The Xeriscape concept is based on seven principles: planning and designing, limiting turf areas, selecting and zoning plants appropriately, improving the soil, using mulch, irrigating efficiently and maintaining the landscape. Source: http://www.denverwater.org/Conservation/Xeriscape/