Davern M, Farrar A, Kendal D, Giles-Corti B. Quality Green Space Supporting Health, Wellbeing and Biodiversity: A Literature Review. 2017.
King WC, Brach JS, Belle S, Killingsworth R, Fenton M, Kriska AM. The Relationship Between Convenience of Destinations and Walking Levels in Older Women. Am J Heal Promot. 2002;18(1):74–82.
Owen N, Humpel N, Leslie E, Bauman A, Sallis JF. Understanding Environmental Influences on Walking Review and Research Agenda. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(1):67–76.
Koohsari MJ, Mavoa S, Villanueva K, Sugiyama T, Badland H, Kaczynski AT, et al. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. Health Place. 2015 May 1;33:75–82.
Cohen DA, McKenzie TL, Sehgal A, Williamson S, Golinelli D, Lurie N. Contribution of Public Parks to Physical Activity. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(3):509–14.
Mowen A. Parks, Playgrounds and Active Living. A Research Synthesis. Princeton, NJ; 2010.
Giles-Corti B, Broomhall MH, Knuiman M, Collins C, Douglas K, Ng K, et al. Increasing walking: How important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? Am J Prev Med. 2005/02/08. 2005 Feb 1;28(2 SUPPL. 2):169–76.
McCormack GR, Rock M, Toohey AM, Hignell D. Characteristics of urban parks associated with park use and physical activity: A review of qualitative research. Health Place. 2010 Jul 1;16(4):712–26.
Stewart OT, Moudon AV, Fesinmeyer MD, Zhou C, Saelens BE. The association between park visitation and physical activity measured with accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary. Heal Place. 2016;38.
Hartig T, Mang M, Evans GW. Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences. Environ Behav. 1991;23(1):3–26.
Hartig T, Berg AE, Hagerhall M. Health benefits of nature experience: psychological, social and cultural processes. In: Nilsson K, Sangster M, Gallis C, Hartig T, Vries S, Seeland K, editors. Forests, Trees and Human Health. 1st ed. Netherlands: Springer Science+ Business Media B.V; 2011. p. 127–68.
Kaplan S. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. J Environ Psychol. 1995 Sep 1;15(3):169–82.
Grahn P, Stigsdotter UA. Landscape planning and stress. Urban For Urban Green. 2003 Jan 1;2(1):1–18.
Van den Berg M, Van Poppel M, Van Kamp I, Andrusaityte S, Balseviciene B, Cirach M, et al. Visiting green space is associated with mental health and vitality: A cross-sectional study in four european cities. Heal Place. 2016;38:8–15.
Francis J, Wood LJ, Knuiman M, Giles-Corti B. Quality or quantity? Exploring the relationship between Public Open Space attributes and mental health in Perth, Western Australia. Soc Sci Med. 2012 May 1;74(10):1570–7.
Francis J, Giles-Corti B, Wood L, Knuiman M. Creating sense of community: The role of public space. J Environ Psychol. 2012;32(4):401–9.
Cohen DA, Inagami S, Finch B. The built environment and collective efficacy. Health Place. 2008 Jun 1;14(2):198–208.
Kaczynski AT, Henderson KA. Environmental correlates of physical activity: a review of evidence about parks and recreation. Leis Sci. 2007;29(4):315–54.
Liu H, Li F, Li J, Zhang Y. The relationships between urban parks, residents’ physical activity, and mental health benefits: A case study from Beijing, China. J Environ Manage. 2017;190:223–30.
Cohen DA, Ashwood JS, Scott MM, Overton A, Evenson KR, Staten LK, et al. Public parks and physical activity among adolescent girls. Pediatrics. 2006 Nov;118(5):e1381-9.
Annerstedt van den Bosch M, Mudu P, Uscila V, Barrdahl M, Kulinkina A, Staatsen B, et al. Development of an urban green space indicator and the public health rationale. Scand J Public Health. 2016 Mar 16;44(2):159–67.
Ekkel ED, de Vries S. Nearby green space and human health: Evaluating accessibility metrics. Landsc Urban Plan. 2017 Jan 1;157:214–20.
Grazuleviciene R, Dedele A, Danileviciute A, Vencloviene J, Grazulevicius T, Andrusaityte S, et al. The influence of proximity to city parks on blood pressure in early pregnancy. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Mar 11;11(3):2958–72.
Triguero-Mas M, Dadvand P, Cirach M, Martínez D, Medina A, Mompart A, et al. Natural outdoor environments and mental and physical health: Relationships and mechanisms. Environ Int. 2015;77:35–41.
Dadvand P, Villanueva CM, Font-Ribera L, Martinez D, Basagana X, Belmonte J, et al. Risks and benefits of green spaces for children: a cross-sectional study of associations with sedentary behavior, obesity, asthma, and allergy. Environ Health Perspect. 2014;122(12):1329–35.
Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS. Green space is associated with walking and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in middle-to-older-aged adults: findings from 203 883 Australians in the 45 and Up Study. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(5):404.
Lachowycz K, Jones AP. Greenspace and obesity: a systematic review of the evidence. Obes Rev. 2011 May 1;12(5):183–9.
Sugiyama T, Leslie E, Giles-Corti B, Owen N. Associations of neighbourhood greenness with physical and mental health: do walking, social coherence and local social interaction explain the relationships? J Epidemiol Community Heal. 2008 May 1;62(5):e9.
van den Berg M, Wendel-Vos W, van Poppel M, Kemper H, van Mechelen W, Maas J. Health benefits of green spaces in the living environment: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Urban For Urban Green. 2015;14(4).
White MP, Alcock I, Wheeler BW, Depledge MH. Would You Be Happier Living in a Greener Urban Area? A Fixed-Effects Analysis of Panel Data. Psychol Sci. 2013 Jun 23;24(6):920–8.
Alcock I, White M, Wheeler B, Fleming L, Depledge M. Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and Less Green Urban Areas. Environ Sci Technol. 2014;48(2):1247.
Maas J, Verheij RA, de Vries S, Spreeuwenberg P, Schellevis FG, Groenewegen PP. Morbidity is related to a green living environment. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63(12):967.
Sturm R, Cohen D. Proximity to urban parks and mental health. J Ment Heal Policy Econ. 2014 Mar;17(1):19–24.
Sugiyama T, Francis J, Middleton NJ, Owen N, Giles-Corti B. Associations Between Recreational Walking and Attractiveness, Size, and Proximity of Neighborhood Open Spaces. Am J Public Heal. 2010 Sep;100(9):1752–7.
Schipperijn J, Bentsen P, Troelsen J, Toftager M, Stigsdotter UK. Associations between physical activity and characteristics of urban green space. Urban For Urban Green. 2012;12(1):109–16.
Epstein LH, Raja S, Gold SS, Paluch RA, Pak Y, Roemmich JN. Reducing Sedentary Behavior: The Relationship Between Park Area and the Physical Activity of Youth. Psychol Sci. 2006;17(8):654–9.
Baran PK, Smith WR, Moore RC, Floyd MF, Bocarro JN, Cosco NG, et al. Park Use Among Youth and Adults: Examination of Individual, Social, and Urban Form Factors. Environ Behav. 2014;46(6):768–800.
Kaczynski AT, Besenyi GM, Stanis SWAW, Koohsari MJ, Oestman KB, Bergstrom R, et al. Are park proximity and park features related to park use and park-based physical activity among adults? Variations by multiple socio-demographic characteristics. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014 Dec 6;11(1):146.
Sugiyama T, Gunn LD, Christian H, Francis J, Foster S, Hooper P, et al. Quality of public open spaces and recreational walking. Am J Public Health. 2015;105(12):2490–5.
Kaczynski AT, Potwarka LR, Saelens BE. Association of park size, distance, and features with physical activity in neighborhood parks. Am J Public Health. 2008 Aug;98(8):1451–6.
Smith M, Hosking J, Woodward A, Witten K, MacMillan A, Field A, et al. Systematic literature review of built environment effects on physical activity and active transport – an update and new findings on health equity. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017 Dec 16;14(1):158.
Veitch J, Ball K, Crawford D, Abbott GR, Salmon J. Park Improvements and Park Activity: A Natural Experiment. Am J Prev Med. 2012 Jun 1;42(6):616–9.
Tester J, Baker R. Making the playfields even: Evaluating the impact of an environmental intervention on park use and physical activity. Prev Med (Baltim). 2009;48(4):316–20.
Cranney L, Phongsavan P, Kariuki M, Stride V, Scott A, Hua M, et al. Impact of an outdoor gym on park users’ physical activity: A natural experiment. Heal Place. 2016;37:26–34.
Edwards N, Hooper P, Knuiman M, Foster S, Giles-Corti B. Associations between park features and adolescent park use for physical activity. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:10.
Wood L. Parks and open space: for the health and wellbeing of children and young people. 2009.
Floyd MF, Bocarro JN, Smith WR, Baran PK, Moore RC, Cosco NG, et al. Park-Based Physical Activity Among Children and Adolescents. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(3):258–65.
Bowden A, Band A, Gray B. Climbing Trees: Getting Aussie Kids Back Outdoors. 2011.
Wood L, Martin K. What makes a good play area for children? 2010.
Kidsafe WA. Natural Playspaces. 2015.
Kaczynski AT, Koohsari MJ, Stanis SAW, Bergstrom R, Sugiyama T. Association of street connectivity and road traffic speed with park usage and park-based physical activity. Am J Heal Promot. 2014;28(3):197–203.
Giles-Corti B, Kelty SF, Zubrick SR, Villanueva KP. Encouraging Walking for Transport and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents: How Important is the Built Environment? Sport Med. 2009;39(12):995–1009.
Bowler DE, Buyung-Ali L, Knight TM, Pullin AS. Urban greening to cool towns and cities: A systematic review of the empirical evidence. Landsc Urban Plan. 2010 Sep 15;97(3):147–55.
Loibl W, Stiles R, Pauleit S, Hagen K, Gasienica B, Tötzer T, et al. Improving Open Space Design to Cope Better with Urban Heat Island Effects. GAIA - Ecol Perspect Sci Soc. 2014 Mar 27;23(1):64–6.
Susca T, Gaffin SR, Dell’Osso GR. Positive effects of vegetation: urban heat island and green roofs. Environ Pollut. 2011;159(8–9):2119–26.
Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, Yli-Pelkonen V, Kaźmierczak A, Niemela J, et al. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: A literature review. Landsc Urban Plan. 2007 Jun;81(3):167–78.
Oliveira S, Andrade H, Vaz T. The cooling effect of green spaces as a contribution to the mitigation of urban heat: A case study in Lisbon. Build Environ. 2011 Nov 1;46(11):2186–94.
Zupancic T, Westmacott C, Bulthuis M. The impact of green space on heat and air pollution in urban communities: A meta-narrative systematic review. Vancouver, BC; 2015.
Tallis M, Taylor G, Sinnett D, Freer-Smith P. Estimating the removal of atmospheric particulate pollution by the urban tree canopy of London, under current and future environments. Landsc Urban Plan. 2011;103(2):129–38.
Bodicoat DH, O’Donovan G, Dalton AM, Gray LJ, Yates T, Edwardson C, et al. The association between neighbourhood greenspace and type 2 diabetes in a large cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2014;4(12):1–9.
Coutts C, Horner M, Chapin T. Using geographical information system to model the effects of green space accessibility on mortality in Florida. Geocarto Int. 2010;25(6):471–84.
Kaczynski AT, Potwarka LR, Smale BJA, Havitz ME. Association of Parkland Proximity with Neighborhood and Park-based Physical Activity: Variations by Gender and Age. Leis Sci. 2009;31:174–91.
Giles-Corti B, Bull F, Knuiman M, McCormack G, Van Niel K, Timperio A, et al. The influence of urban design on neighbourhood walking following residential relocation: Longitudinal results from the RESIDE study. Soc Sci Med. 2013;77:20–30.
Wood L, Hooper P, Foster S, Bull F. Public green spaces and positive mental health – investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing. Heal Place. 2017;48(November 2016):63–71.
Koohsari MJ, Kaczynski AT, Giles-Corti B, Karakiewicz JA. Effects of access to public open spaces on walking: Is proximity enough? Landsc Urban Plan. 2013;117:92–9.
Koohsari MJ, Karakiewicz JA, Kaczynski AT. Public Open Space and Walking: The Role of Proximity, Perceptual Qualities of the Surrounding Built Environment, and Street Configuration. Environ Behav. 2013;45(6):706–36.
Koohsari MJ, Badland H, Mavoa S, Villanueva K, Francis J, Hooper P, et al. Are public open space attributes associated with walking and depression? Cities. 2018 Apr 1;74:119–25.
Veitch J, Salmon J, Ball K. Children’s active free play in local neighborhoods: A behavioral mapping study. Health Educ Res. 2008 Nov 17;23(5):870–9.
Wang D, Brown G, Liu Y, Mateo-Babiano I. A comparison of perceived and geographic access to predict urban park use. Cities. 2015;42:85–96.
Kaczynski AT, Schipperijn J, Hipp JA, Besenyi GM, Wilhelm Stanis SA, Hughey SM, et al. ParkIndex: Development of a standardized metric of park access for research and planning. Prev Med (Baltim). 2016;87:110–4.
Kaczynski AT, Wilhelm Stanis SA, Besenyi GM. Development and testing of a community stakeholder park audit tool. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(3):242–9.
Edwards N, Hooper P, Trapp GSA, Bull F, Boruff B, Giles-Corti B. Development of a Public Open Space Desktop Auditing Tool (POSDAT): A remote sensing approach. Appl Geogr. 2013 Mar 1;38:22–30.
Rigolon A, Nemeth J. A QUality INdex of Parks for Youth (QUINPY): Evaluating urban parks through geographic information systems. Environ Plan B Plan Des. 2016;1–20.
Giles-Corti B, Broomhall MH, Knuiman M, Collins C, Douglas K, Ng K. Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? Am J Prev Med. 2005;28.
Bai H, Stanis SAW, Kaczynski AT, Besenyi GM. Perceptions of Neighborhood Park Quality: Associations with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index. Ann Behav Med. 2013;45:39–48.
Foster S, Giles-Corti B, Knuiman M. Does Fear of Crime Discourage Walkers? A Social-Ecological Exploration of Fear As a Deterrent to Walking. Environ Behav. 2014;46(6):698–717.
Crawford D, Timperio A, Giles-Corti B, Ball K, Hume C, Roberts R, et al. Do features of public open spaces vary according to neighbourhood socio-economic status? Heal Place. 2008;14(4):887–91.
Nordh H, Hartig T, Hagerhall CM, Fry G. Components of small urban parks that predict the possibility for restoration. Urban For Urban Green. 2009 Jan 1;8(4):225–35.
Cohen DA, Golinelli D, Williamson S, Sehgal A, Marsh T, McKenzie TL. Effects of Park Improvements on Park Use and Physical Activity: Policy and Programming Implications. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Dec 1;37(6):475–80.
Timperio A, Giles-Corti B, Crawford D, Andrianopoulos N, Ball K, Salmon J, et al. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: Findings from the CLAN study. Prev Med (Baltim). 2008;47(5):514–8.
Veitch J, Salmon J, Deforche B, Ghekiere A, Van Cauwenberg J, Bangay S, et al. Park attributes that encourage park visitation among adolescents: A conjoint analysis. Landsc Urban Plan. 2017;161:52–8.
Loukaitou-Sideris A, Sideris A. What Brings Children to the Park? Analysis and Measurement of the Variables Affecting Children’s Use of Parks. J Am Plan Assoc. 2010;76(1):89–107.
Loukaitou-Sideris A, Levy-Storms L, Chen L, Brozen M. Parks for an Aging Population: Needs and Preferences of Low-Income Seniors in Los Angeles. J Am Plan Assoc. 2016;82(3):236–51.
Davison K, Lawson CT. Do attributes in the physical environment influence children’s physical activity? A review of the literature. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006 Jul 27;3(1):19.
Colabianchi N, Griffin JL, McIver KL, Dowda M, Pate RR. Where are Children Active and Does it Matter for Physical Activity? A Latent Transition Analysis. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(12):1294–300.
Veitch J, Salmon J, Ball K. Children’s Perceptions of the Use of Public Open Spaces for Active Free-play. Child Geogr. 2007 Nov;5(4):409–22.
Valentine G, McKendrck J. Children’s outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children’s safety and the changing nature of childhood. Geoforum. 1997 May 1;28(2):219–35.
Taylor AF, Kuo F, Sullivan WC. Views of nature and self-discipline: Evidence from inner-city children. J Environ Psychol. 2001;21:1–15.
Kuo FE, Taylor AF. A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence From a National Study. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(9):1580–6.
Bowler D, Buyung-Ali L, Knight T, Pullin A. A systematic review of evidence for the added benefits to health of exposure to natural environments. BMC Public Health. 2010;10(456):1471–2458.
Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: Evidence from 260,061 Australians. Prev Med (Baltim). 2013;57(5):601–6.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Mesh Blocks (MB) [Internet]. 1270.0.55.001 - Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Volume 1 - Main Structure and Greater Capital City Statistical Areas. Commonwealth of Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics; 2016 [cited 2018 Feb 21]. Available from: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by Subject/1270.0.55.001~July 2016~Main Features~Mesh Blocks (MB)~10012
Roe JJ, Thompson CW, Aspinall PA, Brewer MJ, Duff EI, Miller D, et al. Green Space and Stress: Evidence from Cortisol Measures in Deprived Urban Communities. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013;10:4086–103.
Pereira G, Christian H, Foster S, Boruff BJ, Bull F, Knuiman M, et al. The association between neighborhood greenness and weight status: an observational study in Perth Western Australia. Environ Heatlh. 2013;12(49).
Villeneuve PJ, Jerrett M, G. Su J, Burnett RT, Chen H, Wheeler AJ, et al. A cohort study relating urban green space with mortality in Ontario, Canada. Environ Res. 2012 May;115:51–8.
Astell-Burt T, Mitchell R, Hartig T. The association between green space and mental health varies across the lifecourse. A longitudinal study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014;68(6):578.
Feng X, Astell-Burt T. The relationship between neighbourhood green space and child mental wellbeing depends upon whom you ask: Multilevel evidence from 3083 children aged 12–13 years. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14(3).
Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS. Greener neighborhoods, slimmer people? Evidence from 246 920 Australians. Int J Obes. 2014;38(1):156–9.
Pereira G, Foster S, Martin K, Christian H, Boruff BJ, Knuiman M, et al. The association between neighborhood greenness and cardiovascular disease: an observational study. BMC Public Health. 2012 Dec 21;12(1):466.
Derkzen ML, van Teeffelen AJA, Verburg PH. REVIEW: Quantifying urban ecosystem services based on high-resolution data of urban green space: an assessment for Rotterdam, the Netherlands. J Appl Ecol. 2015 Aug 1;52(4):1020–32.
Shashua-Bar L, Pearlmutter D, Erell E. The cooling efficiency of urban landscape strategies in a hot dry climate. Landsc Urban Plan. 2009;92(3):179–86.